Greta's visit continued until
last Wednesday. During the time that she was here, we also hosted
a PCV who was in town on her way to Paris for vacation, as well
as her friend visiting from the United States.
The American friend, Jigar (rhymes
with "bigger"), was the same guy who stayed with me
for one night when he arrived earlier in December. In the interim,
he stayed about two weeks in Kankossa, his friend's village.
Jigar is the one who brought me
tofu a few weeks ago - a most welcome gift. He caused a considerable
stir in Kankossa. First of all, he is a vegetarian, something
that Mauritanians have a hard time understanding. For me, by
now I have gotten beyond the need to have people understand
my being a vegetarian. I don't want to be rude about it, but
compliance is more important than understanding.
This is one facet of the topic
about which I wrote the essay that closes this post. After all,
one of the Peace Corps goals is for us to share our culture
with local people. While being vegetarian is not everyone's
culture in the United States, it is part of the American scene.
I can't share that part of myself if I try to hide that it exists,
That was only one thing that Jigar
had to deal with. Another was that since his parents are originally
from India, people do not understand that he is an American
because he doesn't "look like an American," which
is to say that he is not a caucasian, which is their picture
of what an American is supposed to look like.
This is something that many of
our non-caucasian Volunteers face, not only here, but in other
Peace Corps countries.
It was time to get my teeth cleaned, and I was surprised to
learn that even though the Peace Corps is supposed to be taking
care of our medical needs, they only pay for one cleaning a
year, not the standard two. Any "extra" cleanings
have to be paid for out of our own pockets.
The dentist was very friendly
and gentle. His life reflects the nomadic existence that is
so common to people in this part of the world: he is a Palestinian,
born in Qatar, and had his dental training in Belgium. As the
son of the Palestinian ambassador, his up-to-date office is
on the grounds of the Palestinian embassy.
My invitation to serve in the Peace Corps arrived seven months
before I left for Mauritania. I received not only a detailed
description of the job I would do, but its location; my work
with the national Ministry of Education necessitated being placed
in Nouakchott, the capital, with its population that includes
a fair number of aid organizations and embassies, including
their expatriate employees and diplomats. Calling it "cosmopolitan"
would be a stretch, but it is certainly the most diverse city
in the country.
In contrast, my fellow Trainees
arrived with no idea where they would be stationed - nor would
they find out until training was more than half over. Many of
them could count on living in villages with no electricity or
running water. During our first week in-country, one of them,
in the Agfo (Agriculture-forestry) program, assured of living
in a remote region because of his work, informed me that he
was "going to be out in the bush with the real
This was the first time that I
had heard such a comparison - that some of the Volunteers would
be any more "real" than any others. There was something,
at least in the mind of this Trainee, that told him that his
experience in Mauritania would be more difficult, less comfortable,
and, therefore, more "real," more "authentic"
than that of us who would be living "the easy life"
in the capital.
I have come to think of this as
"the search for authenticity." Deprivation, and the
suffering that ensues, are the hallmark of those Volunteers
in this quest. Those who are the most deprived, those who suffer
the most, are, therefore, the "real" Volunteers.
Never mind that our Macho Man
who made this statement - he being a former soldier and police
officer - didn't manage to make it through one week of training
in the desert heat before he packed it in and went home to his
From what part of the American
psyche comes that "real Volunteers" judgment? We are
all "in the same boat," having left our families,
friends, and comforts in the United States, yet somebody needs
to one-up an equal with this terminology.
With some thought, I have what
may not be the answer, but it is one that helps to frame this
for me. It lies in the omnipresent competition in which most
Americans are compelled to participate. Take a look at every
segment of American society - especially sports and the entertainment
industry - and you see not only a national obsession with winning
and losing, but a world view that is based on it. Every athletic
competition is part of a ritual that ultimately leads to a championship.
Every form of entertainment is eligible for some sort of "Best"
award. Ultimately, all participants are reduced to being either
winners or losers.
(For the sake of this essay, I
am taking a neutral position on the phenomenon of competition
itself. Rather than praise it as necessary or condemn it as
useless, I am simply acknowledging its existence. At the same
time, I say unequivocably that I am wholly disinterested in
competitive endeavors such as sports, either as a participant
or as an observer. I respect those of you who opine that competition
has its place in our society, or even that people are "naturally
competitive," as I have heard many people claim. I am sure
that this is as true for those who say it, as it is untrue for
In any event, the American spirit
of competition is as potent and prevalent as it is portable.
It is understandable that Volunteers have, therefore, brought
it with them to Mauritania, and they are using it to make comparisons
of their sites to those of the other Volunteers. The competition
is for the badge of "authenticity," with its resulting
decision that some have "won," while others have "lost"
The competition is being waged
on three fronts: (1) on the national scale, it is between every
site and Nouakchott; (2) within the capital, it is from one
quartier to another; (3) on the international level,
Volunteers who complete their service in the RIM pride themselves
as having survived in a country with among the highest dropout
rate of all Peace Corps countries.
In considering how I could get
my mind wrapped around this matter, I decided to begin by taking
a look at the goals of the Peace Corps. This has helped me not
only to focus on my work here, but also to see how I fit into
the "search for authenticity." As stated in Peace
Corps literature, its mission is centered around three goals:
(1) To help the people of interested
countries and areas in meeting their needs for trained men and
(2) To help promote a better
understanding of the American people on the part of the peoples
(3) To help promote a better
understanding of other peoples on the part of the American people.
As I peruse these statements,
I notice that there is no mention of suffering, pain, hardship,
or deprivation in the execution of these goals. In that respect,
it bears a striking similarity to our lives before, after, with,
or without the Peace Corps: suffering is optional.
We Volunteers are left to our own
devices not only with the implementation of the goals, but also
in the choices that we make in determining what constitutes
an "authentic" experience. Because inviting countries
ask for people to be placed in rural as well as city settings,
and since the Peace Corps agrees to match Invitees' skills to
the tasks that have to be done, there has to be a wide range
of sites and people in order to meet the needs for training
the men and women who live in the countries served.
Integrating into the host society
is a large theme in Peace Corps life. Any number of cross-cultural
sessions during PST reflect the need of the Volunteers' awareness
of issues regarding local customs. "Fitting in," though,
becomes a delicate balance, and there are many ways in which
to do it. After all, since one of the goals is to help Host
Country Nationals (HCNs) to understand American people, how
do we do that if we drop all of our Americanisms and adopt only
the HCNs' ways of doing things?
During training, several Trainees
purchased fabric and engaged tailors to make clothing that reflect
local design. There were also Trainees who continued to dress
only in the garments that they brought from home.
We have to decide for ourselves
what apparel feels appropriate and what does not; there is neither
a "right" or a "wrong" choice. Personally,
I have purchased and comfortably wear a few complets
and a kaftan; in doing so, I feel natural as I walk the
streets of Nouakchott and visit the homes of Mauritanian friends.
At the same time, there is something that stops me from wearing
During Ramadan, several of our
Volunteers fasted during daylight hours, as is the stricture
from the Koran. They said that they wanted to experience
what it was like for the people with whom they are living and
working. This is a totally valid perspective on their part,
in that it is not possible to understand an experience until
a person has it.
It is equally valid for any of
us to say, "I am not a Muslim. Ramadan is not part of my
religious tradition. I am not going to fast."
One principle by which PCVs are
supposed to ascribe is that we live at the economic level of
the people whom we serve. This is an especially thorny issue,
first of all, because we Volunteers receive a living allowance
that is greater than the salaries of many highly educated Mauritanian
To live at the level of the HCNs,
should we send home our Walkman CD players, digital cameras,
and laptops? Do we give up e-mail for two years because most
HCNs don't have it? Do we ask our family and friends not to
send us packages because they contain items that HCNs cannot
afford to purchase? Do we stop taking vacations in Europe and
the United States because HCNs can't do that?
Even if we did give up all these
trappings, there is no denying that each one of us, by virtue
of being college-educated American citizens, has the promise
of a rewarding future with material wealth and comforts that
most of our Mauritanian friends will experience only as observers.
Any one of us could go right ahead and eat that couscous and
goat meat every day for two years, feeling as "authentic"
as we want, and still know that the experience is as limited
as our stay here. Whether we finish our two years, extend to
three, or decide to leave tomorrow, we will fly away from it
all with a free ticket to a home that offers more opportunities
than most HCNs ever will dream of.
I maintain that if we are to continue
our "search for authenticity," that it be within the
parameters of the Peace Corps goals - especially the second
one, in which we "promote a better understanding of the
American people on the part of the peoples served." In
doing so, our greatest responsibility with regard to our living
and working with HCNs is to be as authentically ourselves as
we can be. Not only will we better serve our Mauritanian friends
and co-workers that way, but we have a better chance to circumvent
the inevitable stress that results when we pretend not to be
who we really are, whether we are a "typical American"
or different, and whether that difference is subtle or blatant.
Any one of us could live here for
the rest of our lives and never be considered a Mauritanian,
regardless of religious conversion, perfection of language skills,
clothing that we wear, or the food that we eat. There is a gift
in knowing and accepting this to be the truth, and that gift
is the comfort that comes with allowing ourselves to relax into
being exactly who we are. How does that play out for you? For
me, there are a few unavoidable aspects of my life that have
continually come to the fore. I share them here with you:
(1) As a vegetarian, I don't force
my views on Mauritanians, but I explain to them that this is
a healthy way of eating that has been working well for me since
1971. Why not have them meet an American who does not
eat hamburgers and drink Coca Cola?
(2) I enjoy reading much more
than watching television. My Kaédi host family had their
television on most of the day. There were five children in that
household. Just because the TV was on didn't mean that I wanted
to watch it. Why not show them, by my example, that reading
books is a pleasurable activity? When we talk about it, I also
let them know that at home, in the USA, I don't own a television.
(3) I have also had the occasion
to introduce my "authentic" self to fellow Volunteers.
Being a naturally early riser, I feel my best when I get to
sleep by ten o'clock in the evening. I'm going to be awake by
6:30 AM whether I go to bed early or late, so I may as well
be rested. As a result, I don't attend the parties that my fellow
Volunteers enjoy - not because I don't appreciate their company,
but because my body is working on a different rhythm.
(4) I accept that I am hopelessly
"out of the loop" on many occasions. Mob scene party
and sporting events don't appeal to me, which is why I have
avoided the ones that most fellow PCVs enjoy. Most of the popular
culture names, events, and music that the PCVs talk about are
alien to me.
(5) I am most comfortable - both
with myself and in relationships - when I am honest about who
I am. That is what contributes to my personal sense of authenticity.
In this regard, I felt compelled to share with my fellow Trainees
and Volunteers that I am gay and Jewish, which puts me in the
minority in even more ways than the ones I have already described.
I am saddened by the advice from Peace Corps that I not disclose
this information to HCNs. At the same time, I feel that I will
probably take the opportunity to do this before I close service.
As I observe behavior of those
around me, I can't help but notice the movement that we as Volunteers
and the Mauritanians around us are making toward each other.
On our part, we have been making many changes in our daily lives:
drinking the tea, eating the food, speaking the languages, wearing
the clothing, showing up late to meetings - in all, taking upon
ourselves the aspects of everyday Mauritanian life.
While we are engaged in adapting
to local practices, Mauritanians are leaving the desert in favor
of cities, trading in their camels for cars, and expanding their
networks of water, electricity, and cell phones. With greater
numbers of people watching television, they are increasingly
being exposed to images of the "good life," generally
proferred by movies and shows eminating from France, Brazil,
South Africa, and Senegal.
Stop for a second. Take a breath
and a good hard look. Do you see what is happening? We
are trying to become more like them, while they
are putting their energies into being more like us! In
the exchange, each group is taking on characteristics and behaviors
of the other. Who is remaining not only "authentic,"
but "authentically" what?
Ultimately, the matter of our being
"real" Volunteers must depend exclusively on our individual
implementation of the goals as set forth by the Peace Corps:
(1) the quality of the work that we do in transferring our skills;
(2) the authentic sharing of ourselves with the people we meet
here; and (3) an accurate portrayal of our lives to family and
friends at home.
This is an issue that deserves
our individual and collective consideration. Living our lives
with awareness leads to living them with intention. It is through
our intention that we create the opportunity to make a difference
in a world that needs as much help as we can offer it.