Sound manipulation - part 1

 
     We know that the abilities to listen and speak precede reading and writing. With this in mind, word play known as sound manipulation can be used to help strengthen reading and writing when children are ready to do so. Oral language play like this can be fun for adult and child when they are traveling together or at home. It takes no equipment - just a basic understanding on the part of the adult. 

     The first type of sound manipulation needs only an understanding of being able to break a word into syllables, and the understanding that a syllable is  a part of a word that represents one sound. I have found in school that children begin to understand the concept of syllables when we (1) use their names and names of people they know as examples and (2) clap as we say each syllable. So we say Christopher as /Chris/-/to/-/pher/ with three claps and Eve with  one.

     There are six different approaches to helping children to work with syllables:

     Matching
     Find two words that contain the same syllable and ask your child to match them. In our language, you can find many pairs, such as sandwich and sandbag, bookmark and bookend, airport and airborne, 

     Isolation
     Ask your child to name that sound she hears at the beginning of a word. You are looking for the first syllable. With a little practice, children pick  this up easily. What do you hear at the beginning of igloo (/ig/), table (/ta/),  computer (/com/), etc.?

     Substitution
     With the many words that rhyme in English, we substitute the beginning syllable to create a list of rhyming words. We ask, “What word do we get if we change the /can/ in candy to /han/? It’s handy. 

     Blending
     The adult breaks the word into syllables, says them slowly, and asks the child to put them together. Put these syllables together: /pup/-/py/ (puppy), /kit/-/ten/ (kitten), /san/-/dy/ (sandy).

     Segmentation
     This is the opposite of blending, above: the child takes a word and says it slowly, by emphasizing the syllables. You ask the child to break these words into syllables: table (/ta/-/ble/), garbage (/gar/-/bage/), candle (/can/-/dle/)

     Deletion
     You leave syllables out of words. Say napkin without the /kin/, baseball
without the /ball/, Suzy without the /su/. 
  
This column has been incorporated and expanded in Teach Your Children Well: A Teacher’s  Advice for Parents.

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